Monthly Archives: August 2016

Malware Analysis – Dridex Loader – Part 2

On our last blog post, we performed malware analysis of Dridex and found out how to decode its strings. This gave us more visibility into its intent and functionality. In this part we will continue the analysis and move into getting the Dridex configuration settings and XML messages that are generated and exchanged with the C&C.

Please note that a bit of familiarity with OllyDbg is needed in order to follow the steps described.

Dridex is known to contain an initial configuration which contains the campaign ID and the addresses of the C&C. In the previous post, one of the strings that we obtained from decoding the chunk at virtual address 0x00411020 was “%d.%d.%d.%d:%d”. This string is interesting because it’s a format string that denotes the format of an IP address and port. Provided with this information we start our analysis and step through the code and try to determine where is used. Essentially, at some point in time, after going back and forth in the debugger, setting breakpoints and restarting the debugging session, we can see that there is a function at virtual address 0x00404408 that is responsible to read a chunk of data stored in virtual address 0x004164e0 (file offset 0x000154E0). Stepping through the execution of this function we can see in the stack our string being used and moments after, the first IP address of the C&C appears in the stack view. Going over this function a couple of times and verifying what it does we can determine that the Botnet ID, number of C&C and the C&C addresses are retrieved from this chunk of data. Below is a print screen that shows the instructions that perform this operation.


After reading the values, the C&C addresses are converted to ASCII and the value is returned by the wvnsprintfA() API using the format  string “%d.%d.%d.%d:%d”. The list of C&C for this sample are:


Now that we know where this information resides, we can also get the C&C addresses outside of the debugger. We know the file offset where the configuration settings are. Then we can use the command line to get the hex values for the botnet ID and IP addresses and convert them using the printf command and the format string “%d.%d.%d.%d:%d”.


After this, the approach is the same. Stepping through the code, setting breakpoints, restarting the debug session and repeating this for several times until we find what we are looking for. In this case we can see that the next string to be used is the following:


This will be the next step performed by the loader. Gathering information to populate this XML message which will then be used to report to the C&C in order to retrieve the C&C nodes and further down the road retrieve the DLL module. Now, how does the loader generate the values that are used to populate this XML message? Let’s go over each one.

The unique=”%s” value is generated by querying different values from the Windows registry and then computing a hash of these values using MD5 as algorithm. In order to query the values from the Registry, Dridex uses the RegOpenKeyExA() and RegQueryValueExA() API’s. By setting a breakpoint in these API’s we can see the different registry keys and subkeys being queried. An example is shown in the following image.


The values obtained are from the subkeys ComputerName, USERNAME and InstallDate. We can obtain the values by setting a breakpoint in the RegQueryValueExA() and then view the contents of the buffer address.
The full registry keys are:


This information is then concatenated and 4 null bytes are appended to it. This is then passed to a hashing routine to compute a MD5 hash. To perform this operation this sample uses CryptAcquireContextW(), CryptCreateHash(), CryptHashData() and CryptGetHashParam() API calls.  How do we know its MD5? We can set a breakpoint in CryptCreateHash() and determine the algorithm used by looking at the stack view and look at the different arguments. Specifically the alg_id has the value 0x00008003. By looking at the MSDN website, we can verify that this number corresponds to MD5. Then by setting a breakpoint on CryptHashData() and stepping into its execution we can see the buffer of data as shown in the below picture.


The generation of the botnet ID value can be replicated by copying the 12 bytes of the buffer and computing the md5 hash with command seen in the below picture.


Then the botnet value is retrieved from the configuration settings hardcoded in the binary, as we saw previously, and has the value 220 (0x00DC). The bit value is the system architecture. Finally, the Soft XML tag is populated by the list of software installed in the machine. This is accomplished by opening the registry key “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall” and querying the values “DisplayName” and “DisplayVersion”. Once again this information can be seen by setting a breakpoint in the RegOpenKeyExA() and RegQueryValueExA() API’s.  After gathering all the information, the loader configuration XML message will look similar to the following:


This message on my system is temporarily saved at virtual address 0x0069B008. Stepping through the code you will see that this message becomes gibberish. Essentially, this XML message is passed to a function that transform this message into gibberish. Dridex is known to use RC4, so it would be a matter of time (.. and some help) in order to understand where this encryption is done and if is RC4.

Going back and forth in the debugger we found a function at virtual address 0x00409504 that performs the encryption. To figure out thefunction where the encryption routine is performed the article “An Introduction to Recognizing and Decoding RC4 Encryption in Malware” was very helpful.

This sample uses a 2048-bits RC4 key to encrypt the data. The key is obtained from the decoded strings. In this sample the RC4 key is: “Yhc3XUIiv2rNzgy968TWCcx6PjBvLnuyT0ofNA9lvif8EIoZrLshPJ2kYi1WFXMDsuihGkT”. In the picture below we can see the data before encrypted at virtual address 0x00698b008.


After encryption, the data is sent over the network using a HTTPS request. In the debugger we can see that the request uses the POST verb by setting a breakpoint on HttpOpenRequestW(). We can also see the body of the request and its size by setting a breakpoint on HttpSendRequestW() and looking at the contents of the virtual address used by the buffer parameter.


In the network we can see the exact same data by doing SSL interception using Burp proxy.


Then, the C&C replies back with RC4 encrypted message which we can observe in the network also using Burp.


Following that, the HTTPS response is processed and the payload is retrieved by InternetReadFile() API and passed to the RC4 decryption routine. Because RC4 is a symmetric algorithm we can use the encryption key to decrypt the payload. If we save the HTTPS response captured by Burp and use the RC4 key to decrypt the body of the HTTP response, we get the following message:


Before we continue is important to refer that this XML message contains the list of C&C nodes which will be used by the bot module (DLL) . To obtain the list of C&C, the data needs to be base64 decoded and then decoded with a 4-bytes XOR key which is stored at byte 128. In our case is 0x162b0e0f. After decoding, the data needs to be decompressed. The below picture illustrates how to obtain the nodes list.


This message named “list” is then saved for persistence by being used to populate a startup config XML message that is retrieved from the encoded strings and has the following format: <cfg net=”%d”><startup>%s</startup><del>%S</del></cfg>

After the XML message has been populated, it gets encoded with a XOR key that is created by computing the MD5 of the values that are retrieved from the below registry keys plus a value of 0x1c that is appended to it.


The encoded data is then saved into the registry into the following registry key:


Where “%s” will be substituted by the XOR key that was generated previously. In our case the encoded data will be saved into the registry entry “HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\CLSID\{6B39CE2E-3F5E-4C33-366C-31C00F47FD68}\ShellFolder”. The operation of saving the encoded data into the Windows Registry can be observed by setting a breakpoint into the RegSetValueExA().


Following that, the Loader creates a Mutex that is generated by computing a MD5 hash of the values retrieved from the same registry keys as the previous step, plus a value of 0x02 that is appended to it.  Then, the last step of the loader is to create a new XML message  that is used to check-in into the C&C and retrieve the DLL module. The XML message has the format: “<loader><get_module unique=”%s” botnet=”%d” system=”%d” name=”%s” bit=”%d”/>” . This message is populated with the values we already seen previously. Then is encrypted and sent over the network in a HTTPS POST request as we can see in Burp.


The C&C replies back with a response.


Noteworthy, that the content length of this message is much bigger than previous messages. The response gets processed as previously and then decrypted. The message decrypted contains the Dridex DLL module saved in base64.


The DLL md5 is ccd94e452b35f8820b88d1e5856e8196 and can be obtained either by decrypting the network traffic using the RC4 key or by dumping the memory contents to a file using OllyDbg. After that the DLL is injected into explorer.exe.  To achieve this Dridex uses a technique known as DLL injection which consists in copying the malicious DLL into the address space of the target process i.e., explorer.exe and then creates a new thread which points to the malicious DLL. This technique is well explained in the Practical Malware Analysis book from Michael Sikorski and Andrew Honig.

Essentially, Dridex will browse the opened processes until it finds the one it wants to inject to. This is done using the API functions CreateToolhelp32Snapshot(), Process32First(), and Process32Next(). Then it opens the desired process with OpenProcess(), allocates memory in the target process with VirtualAllocEx() and it injects the malicious DLL and a piece of shellcode with WriteProcessMemory(). Following that it creates a remote thread using CreateRemoteThread(). The below picture illustrates some of the steps performed during the DLL injection.


The loader process then exits and the DLL module will take over and do its job.

Before we conclude our analysis, there is one thing that is worth to mention. Its how Dridex creates a persistence mechanism to survive reboots. Dridex only creates the persistence mechanism when the operating system is rebooted or shutdown. This is a clever technique and difficult to detect. The DLL is dumped to the disk during the shutdown and a registry key is created under HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run that invokes rundll32.exe to invoke the malicious DLL using an obfusctated export name. This will make sure the DLL is injected into explorer.exe when the operating system starts. Then the registry key is deleted. This key can been seen by starting the operating system in safe mode.


That’s it.  In this series of articles we covered different techniques used by Dridex. Dridex features and functionality go much more beyond the loader and one of its strengths  resides in the different modules and injection capabilities it has. Even in the loader there are features that we didn’t saw because we were running with admin rights in a Windows XP machine. The loader has other capabilities when is running in a more recent operating systems without admin rights such as bypassing UAC. Many of the features and modules are covered in the references articles. Nonetheless, hopefully this gives a good overview about the Dridex loader and its functionality.

These articles were possible due to the help from two good friends (you know who you are) that gave me some hints on some aspects of the analysis.

Loader MD5:c2955759f3edea2111436a12811440e1
DLL MD5:ccd94e452b35f8820b88d1e5856e8196


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Malware Analysis – Dridex Loader – Part I

It has been quite some time since the article “Malware Analysis – Dridex & Process Hollowing” where we went over the analysis of banking trojan known as Dridex and how it leverages a technique known as process hollowing to extract an unpacked version of itself into memory. In that article, we briefly explained this technique and used OllyDbg to illustrate the different steps. Today, we will continue where we left off, extract the unpacked sample from memory and continue the analysis. This unpacked sample is known as the Loader. The Loader is what we will be looking at. We will mainly use a debugger to perform our analysis in order to understand more about what it does and get visibility into its functionality.  Please note that a bit of familiarity with OllyDbg is needed in order to follow the steps described.

You might want to read the last article and read more about the process hollowing technique in order to situate yourself before we start. As a refresher, the last step we did was to use OllyDbg to set a breakpoint on WriteProcessMemory() API and execute the binary. Once the breakpoint was reached we could see the moment before WriteProcessMemory() API was called and the different arguments in the stack.

In OllyDbg in the stack view (bottom right) we could see that one of the arguments is buffer. The data stored in this buffer is of particular interest to us because it contains the contents of the malicious code that is going to be written to the legitimate process i.e., the unpacked sample.

So, to continue our analysis we need to extract the unpacked sample into disk. We can perform this by saving contents of the buffer argument from the WriteProcessMemory() API into a file. In OllyDbg, in the memory view (bottom left) we right click – Backup – Save data to file and save the file with the suggested name _009C0000.mem.


With the binary extracted we can, again. start the initial steps of malware analysis. As normal we perform basic static analysis in 3 steps. The first step is to profile the file. We can easily determine its an PE32 executable file using the Linux “file” command. In addition, we compute the MD5 of the file which is c2955759f3edea2111436a12811440e1. With this fingerprint we can search different online tools such as VirusTotal in order to find further information about it.

Second step is to run the strings command against the binary. The strings command will display printable ASCII and UNICODE strings that are embedded within the file. This can disclose information about the binary functionality.

The third step is to use some tool like the PE Analysis Toolkit from Fernando Mercês or CFF explorer from Daniel Pisteli to analyze the Win32 PE headers. Extracting information from the PE headers can reveal information about API calls that are imported and exported by the program. It can also disclose date and time of the compilation and other embedded data of interest. The binary contains library dependencies and these dependencies can be looked at in order to infer functionality through static analysis. These dependencies are included in the Import Address Table (IAT) section of the PE structure so the Windows loader (ntdll.dll) can know which dll’s and functions are needed for the binary to properly run.

Noteworthy, is that in this binary, the PE headers don’t contain an Import Directory and we are unable to determine its dependencies because the IAT is missing. This makes this binary more stealthier and more complex to analyze. As result we will need to load this sample into OllyDbg and try to find out more information about it while stepping throughout the code. The binary needs to somehow resolve the Imports.

Dridex is known to use different techniques to encode and obfuscate data.  This sample is no different. We open the _009C0000.mem file into OllyDbg and while going back and forth and stepping into the different functions, we can observe that in the beginning of the execution there is a XOR function that is performed. By following the memory addresses that are used across the different function arguments from the different routines, and looking in detail into the memory and stack pane we can see that the names of the different API calls start to appear. There is a function at virtual address 0x00406c0f  that performs XOR of a chunk of data stored at virtual address 0x0040f060. It uses 2 XOR 32-bits keys. In the picture below you can see in the dissasembler window (top left) the instruction that loads the first XOR key into the register EAX. By following the function loop and see the content of the memory addresses we would be able to see that LoadLibraryA() API appears as string.

Because going over the loop in OllyDbg and observe the API calls being resolved is a tedious process we can perform the decoding offline. We know where the chunk of data starts and the XOR keys. So, we can save the chunk of data into a file in order to perform the decoding and get all the data. To do this in OllyDbg, we set a breakpoint in the XOR function at virtual address 0x00406c0f, In the dissasembler window (top left), Ctrl + G and in the expression to follow dialog box enter the function address. Then press F2 to set a breakpoint in that line. Then hit F9 to run the sample. It will pause the execution when the breakpoint is hit. Then press F7 to step into each instruction until you hit the function that loads the first XOR key at address 0x00406c36. Then go into to the Memory dump window (Bottom left corner), hit Ctrl + G and insert the memory address 0x0040f060. Then select the data until you see a series of null bytes. Right click and choose Binary – Binary Copy. Below a print screen of this step.


Then we can paste the data to a text file and use a small python script to perform the XOR decoding using the obtained keys and see that the binary has an extensive list of 355 imported functions.


This was the first XOR operation. Then after decoding the API it needs, the binary decodes the chunk of data stored at 0x00414c20 and gets the names of the libraries like kernel32.dll, ntdll.dll and others.  This operation is performed by a function stored at Virtual Address 0x0040d42f. In the picture below you can see in the dissasembler window (top left) the instruction that loads the first XOR key into the register EAX.


Using the same technique has previously described, we can save this chunk of data into a file and perform the XOR decoding in order to get the list of libraries that are used by the binary.


The strings decoding happens throughout the execution. There are 5 chunks of data that are decoded using XOR and 2 x 32-bits keys. The below table shows the XOR keys and the offset address of the data and functions that are called in order to decode the strings:


By decoding all the chunks we get visibility into the binary functionality and can deduce its malicious intent. For the sake of brevity and because the list of strings is quite extensive, this is left as exercise to the reader. Nonetheless, below is a small portion of the decoded strings. These ones are associated with the UAC bypass technique used by Dridex to get Admin rights.


That’s it for part 1. On part 2 we will look into how the C&C addresses are obtained and some of the techniques used by Dridex to generate the XML messages used by the loader.

Sample MD5: c2955759f3edea2111436a12811440e1



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