RIG Exploit Kit Analysis – Part 2

Continuing with the analysis of the RIG exploit kit, let’s start where we left off and understand the part that contains the malicious Adobe Flash file. We saw, in the last post, that the RIG exploit kit landing page contains heavily obfuscated and encoded JavaScript. One of the things the JavaScript code does is verifying if the browser is vulnerable to CVE-2013-2551. If it is, it will launch an exploit followed by shellcode, as we saw in the last post. If the browser is not vulnerable, it continues and the browser is instructed to download a malicious Flash file. The HTTP request made to fetch the Flash file is made to the domain add.alislameyah.org. As you could see in the figure below, the HTTP answer is of content type x-shockwave-flash and the data downloaded starts with CWS (characters ‘C’,’W’,’S’ or bytes 0x43, 0x57, 0x53). This is the signature for a compressed Flash file.


Next  step of our analysis? Analyze this Flash file.  Before we start let’s go over some overview about Flash. There are two main reasons why Flash is an attractive target for malware authors. One is because of its presence in every modern endpoint and available across different browsers and content displayers. The other is due to its features and capabilities.

Let’s go over some of the features. Adobe Flash supports the scripting language known as ActionScript. The ActionScript is interpreted by the Adobe ActionScript Virtual Machine (AVM). Current Flash versions support two different versions of the ActionScript scripting language. The Action Script (AS2) and the ActionScript 3 (AS3) that are interpreted by different AVM’s. The AS3 appeared in 2006 with Adobe Flash player 9 and uses AVM2. The creation of a Flash file consists in compiling ActionScript code into byte code and then packaging that byte code into a SWF container. The combination of the complex SWF file format and the powerful AS3 makes Adobe Flash an attractive attack surface. For example, SWF files contain containers called tag’s that could be used to store ActionScript code or data. This is an ideal place for exploit writers and malware authors to conceal their intentions and to use it as vehicle for launching attacks against client side vulnerabilities. Furthermore, both AS2 and AS3 have the capability to load SWF embedded files at runtime that are stored inside tags using the loadMovie and Loader class respectively. AS3 even goes further by allowing referencing objects from one SWF to another SWF. As stated by Wressnegger et al., in the paper “Analyzing and Detecting Flash-based Malware using Lightweight Multi-Path Exploration ” this allows sophisticated capabilities that can leverage encrypted payloads, polymorphism and runtime packers .

Now, let’s go over the analysis and dissection of the Flash file. This is achieved using a combination of dynamic and static analysis. First, we look at the file capabilities and functionality by looking at its metadata. The command line tool Exiftool created by Phill Harvey can display the metadata included in the analyzed file. In this case, it shows that it takes advantage of the Action Script 3.0 functionality.  Information that is more comprehensive is available with the usage of the swfdump.exe tool that is part of the Adobe Flex SDK, which displays the different components of the Flash file. The output of swfdump displays that the SWF file contains the DoABC and DefineBinaryData tags.  This suggests the usage of ActionScript 3.0 and binary data containing other elements that might contain malicious code executed at runtime.

Second, we will go deeper and dissect the SWF file. Open source tools to dissect SWF files exist such as Flare and Flasm written by Igor Kogan. Regrettably, they do not support ActionScript 3.  Another option is the Adobe SWF Investigator. This tool was created by Peleus Uhley and released as open source by Adobe Labs. The tool can analyze and disassemble ActionScript 2 (AS2), ActionScript 3 (AS3) SWFs and include many other features. Unfortunately, sometimes the tool is unable to parse the SWF file in case has been packed using commercial tools like secureSWF and DoSWF.

One good alternative is to use JPEXS Flash File Decompiler (FFDec). FFDec is a powerful, feature rich and open source flash decompiler built in Java and originally written by Jindra Petřík. One key feature of FFDec is that it includes an Action Script debugger that can be used to add breakpoints to allow you to step into or over the code. Another feature is that it shows the decompiled ActionScript and its respective p-code.

One popular tool among Flash malware writers is doSWF. doSWF is a commercial product used to protect the intellectual property of different businesses that use Adobe Flash technology and want to prevent others copying it. Malware authors take advantage of this and use it for their own purposes. This tool can enforce different protections to the code level in order to defeat the decompiler. In addition to the different protections done to the code logic, doSWF can perform literal strings encryption using RC4 or AES. Also, it can be used to wrap an encrypted SWF inside another SWF file using the encrypted loader function.  The decryption occurs at runtime and the decrypted file is loaded into memory.

Opening the SWF file using FFDec and observing its structure using Action Script you can see the different strings referencing doSWF which is an indication that the file has been obfuscated using doSWF. FFDec has a P-Code deobfuscation feature that can restore the control flow, remove traps and remove dead code. In addition, there is a plugin that can help rename invalid identifiers.  The figure below shows a snippet of the ActionScript code after it has been deobfuscated by FFDec.


As seen in other Exploit Kits such as Angler and Neutrino, the first flash file is only used as carrier and malicious code such as exploit code or more Flash files are encrypted and obfuscated inside this first stage flash file.. The goal here is to perform static analysis of the Action Script code and determine what is happening behind the scenes. Normally, the DefineBinaryData contains further Flash files or exploit code but you need to understand the code and get the encryption keys in order to extract the data. Because my strengths are not in programming I tried to overcome this step before rolling up my sleeves and spending hours trying to understand the Action Script code like I did for Neutrino with the help of some friends. One way to carve the data is to use the Action Script debugger available in FFDec.  Essentially, setting a breakpoint in the LoadBytes() method. Then running the Flash file and then when the breakpoint is triggered, use the FFDec Search SWF in memory plugin in order to find SWF files inside the FFDec process memory address space. But for this sample I used SULO.

During Black Hat USA 2014, Timo Hirvonen presented a novel tool to perform dynamic analysis of malicious Flash files. He released an open source tool named SULO. This tool uses the Intel Pin framework to perform binary instrumentation in order to analyze Flash files dynamically. This method enables automated unpacking of embedded Flash files that are either obfuscated or encrypted using commercial tools like secureSWF and DoSWF.  The code is available for download on F-Secure GitHub repository (https://github.com/F-Secure/Sulo) and it should be compiled with Visual Studio 2010. The compilation process creates a .DLL file that can be used in conjunction with Intel Pin Kit for Visual Studio 2010. There are however limitations in the versions of Adobe Flash Player supported by SULO. At the time of writing only Flash versions and are supported. Nonetheless, one can use SULO with the aim to extract the packed Flash file in a simple and automated manner. In this case, I used the stand alone Flash player flashplayer11_1r102_62_win_sa_32bit.exe.

When using SULO to analyze the Flash file, the second stage Flash file is extracted automatically. The command shown in figure below will run and extract the packed SWF file.


In this particular case, SULO manages to extract 2 SWF files. So, the next step is to analyze these second stage SWF files. Once again, using FFDec and observing its structure and Action Script code. The second stage Flash files are interesting because one contains the code and the other makes extensive use of DefineBinaryData tag’s to store encrypted data.  As a starting point, the analysis steps here are the same. Invoke the P-Code deobfuscation feature in order to restore the control flow, remove traps and remove dead code. In addition, the plugin to rename invalid identifiers was executed. After performing these two steps, the Action Script code is more readable.

In this post I won’t bother you with the details about the Action Script code. Nonetheless, one thing to mention about the code is that if you follow the site malware.dontneedcoffee.com and the amazing work done by Kaffeine on hunting down, analyzing and documenting Exploit Kits you might have noticed that he calls this version of RIG “RIG-v Neutrino-ish“. The reason might be due to the usage of the RC4 key to decrypt the payload and also the similarities in the way the Flash files are encoded and obfuscated.

Anyhow, understanding the code is important but is also important to understand what the Flash file is hiding from us. In a nutshell, one of the second stage Flash files contain several defineBinaryTags which contain encrypted strings that are used throughout the code in the other second stage Flash file. The data can be obtained by decrypting the data using RC4 keys that are also inside the defineBinaryTags. The figure below ilustrates this.


In summary DefineBinaryData tag 2 contains an array of one 16-byte RC4 key. DefineBinaryData tag 1 contains 19 (0x13) RC4-encrypted strings. The first dword contains the total number of strings. Then each string starts with a dword that contains the size of the string, followed by the RC4-encrypted data.

The DefineBinaryData tag 3 contains an array of three 16-byte RC4 keys. DefineBinaryData tag 4 contains 6 (0x06) RC4-encrypted strings. The first dword contains the total number of strings. Then each string starts with a dword that contains the size of the string, followed by the RC4-encrypted data. The RC4 decryption routine uses the 3 RC4 keys iteratively across the 19 strings.

The decrypted strings are used on different parts of the code. One of the strings is relevant because it contains shellcode that is nearly identical to the one seen in the JavaScript exploit inside the landing page.

Based on the decrypted strings it seems the Flash contains code to exploit CVE-2015-5122. This exploit has a CVSS score of 10 and is known as Adobe Flash ActionScript 3 opaque Background Use-After-Free Vulnerability. This exploit was found as a result of the public disclosure of the Hacking Team leak. In a matter of hours, the exploit was incorporated in the Angler Exploit Kit.

… and with a so lengthy post, that’s it for today. In the following post I will cover how to analyze the Shellcode to understand what is done behind the scenes when one of the exploits is successfully triggered.

First stage Flash file MD5: d11c936fecc72e44416dde49a570beb5
Second stage Flash file MD5: 574353ed63276009bc5d456da82ba7c1
Second stage Flash file MD5: e638fa878b6ea20fa8253d79b989fd7e

Neutrino Exploit Kit Analysis and Threat Indicators

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RIG Exploit Kit Analysis – Part 1

One of the Exploits kits that has been in the news lately is the RIG Exploit Kit. Some of the infections seen by the community seem to be part of a campaign called Afraidgate. I had the chance to capture one infection from this campaign. So, I decided to give it a try and write a small write-up about this multistage weaponized malware kit. The following analysis focus is on a drive-by-download campaign observed few days ago. It leverages the RIG Exploit Kit to infect systems and drop a new version of Locky ransomware (Odin).

Due to the complex nature of Exploit Kits, in order to perform analyses I use a combination of both dynamic and static analysis techniques. For the dynamic analysis part, I used an enhanced version of the setup described here “Dynamic Malware Analysis with REMnux’.

As usual, the infection starts with a innocent victim browsing to a compromised website. The compromised website replies with a HTTP response similar to the one in the figuyre below. The response does not always include the malicious payload. The compromised web server contacts the RIG back-end infrastructure in order perform various checks before it delivers the malicious JavaScript code. Checks include verification of the victim IP address and its Geo-location. Furthermore, within the malicious JavaScript code, there are new domain names and URLs that are generated dynamically by the backend for each new infection. As you could see in the figure, inside the HTTP response, blended with the page content, there is code to invoke a malicious JavaScript code. In this particular case, the malicious code is retrieved from the URL /js/stream.js” hosted on “monro.nillaraujo.com”. Noteworthy is the fact that for each new request to the compromised site there is a new domain and URL generated dynamically by the Exploit Kit. This is a clever technique and is much more challenging to build defenses that block these sites


To reach out to the server “monro.nillaraujo.com ” the operating system performs a DNS query in order to finds its IP address. The name server (NS) who is authoritative for the domain gives the DNS response. In this case the NS server for this domain is “ns1.afraid.org “. This server belongs to the Free DNS hosting. They provide everyone with free DNS access. In this case the threat actors take advantage of this. I think the name of the Afraidgate campaign might have derived from the fact that the DNS domains used in the gates are being answered by afraid.org. Brad Duncan might be able to answer this! Another interesting fact is that the answer received by the DNS server have a short time to live (TTL). This technique is often leveraged by the threat actors behind the EK because this will make the domain only available for of a limited amount of time, allowing them to shift infrastructure quickly. This makes the blocking and analysis much more difficult. The below figure show the DNS answer for the domain  “monro.nillaraujo.com”.


This particular domain at the time of the analysis was resolved to the IP Then, after the DNS resolution, the browser makes the HTTP request in order to fetch the malicious JavaScript code. The HTTP answer is shown below.


The line of code that contains the <iframe> tag is instrumental in the infection chain. This line of code will instruct the browser to make a request to the URL / ?xniKfreZKRjLCYU=l3SKfPrfJxzFGMSUb-nJDa9BNUXCRQLPh4SGhKrXCJ-ofSih17OIFxzsmTu2KTKvgJQyfu0SaGyj1BKeO10hjoUeWF8Z5e3x1RSL2x3fipSA9weEYQ4U-ZWVE7g-iVukmrITIs0uxRKA4DRYnuJJVlJD4xgY0Q
that is hosted in the server add.ALISLAMEYAH.ORG. This is the server hosting the RIG Exploit landing page for this particular infection and points to an IP address in Russia. When the browser processes this request, the victim lands in the Exploit Kit landing page that in turn delivers a HTML page with an script tag defined in its body. This script tag contains heavily encoded and obfuscated JavaScript code.

The widespread install base of JavaScript allows malware authors to produce malicious web code that runs in every browser and operating system version.  Due to its flexibility, the malware authors can be very creative when obfuscating the code within the page content.  In addition, due to the control the threat actors have over the compromised sites, they utilize advanced scripting techniques that can generate polymorphic code. This polymorphic code allows the JavaScript to be slightly different each time the user visits the compromised site.  This technique is a challenge for both security analysts and security controls.For each new victim request there is a different landing URL and slightly different payload. The figure below shows the JavaScript code inside the HTTP response. This is the RIG Exploit kit landing page.


From an analysis perspective, the goal here is to understand the result of the obfuscated JavaScript. To be able to perform this analysis one needs to have a script debugger and a script interpreter. There are good JavaScript interpreters like SpiderMonkey or Google Chrome v8 that can help in this task. SpiderMonkey is a standalone command line JavaScript interpreter released by the Mozilla Foundation (SpiderMonkey). Google Chrome v8 is an open source JavaScript engine and an alternative to SpiderMonkey (Introduction Chrome V8).

In this particular case, the JavaScript contains dependencies of HTML components. Because of this, it is necessary to use a tool that can interpret both HTML and JavaScript. One tool option is JSDetox created by Sven Taute (JSDetox). JSDetox allows us to statically analyze and deobfuscate JavaScript.

Another great Java Script debugger suite is Microsoft Internet Explorer Developer Tools, which includes both a debugger for JavaScript and VBScript. This tool allows the user to set breakpoints. In this case by stepping through the code using the Microsoft IE Developer tool and watching the content of the different variables, the deobfuscation can be done.  Another option is to use Visual Studio client side script debugging functionality in conjunction with Internet Explorer.

In this case, I used the Microsoft Internet Explorer Developer. After some time analyzing the deobfuscation loop, stepping over the lines of code, inserting breakpoints in key lines and watching the different variables, some of the code is revealed.  The result is JavaScript code that triggers the exploit code based on the browser version and if you have Adobe Flash installed it will trigger the download of a malicious Flash file.

For the IE Browser, the RIG EK should leverage two or more exploits at a given time. In my setup I was limited to the the JavaScript code that seems to leverage CVE-2013-2551. This exploit has a CVSS score of 9.3 and exploits a Use-after-free vulnerability in Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 through 10. This vulnerability was initially discovered by VUPEN and demonstrated during the Pwn2Own contest at CanSecWest in 2013. After the detailed post from VUPEN, different exploit kits started to adopt it. According to the NTT Global Threat Intelligence Report 2015, this highly reliable exploit made its way to the top of being one of the most popular exploits used across all Exploit Kits today.


The code is quite large so I won’t post it here but in the figure above you could see the last part of it. It contains the Shellcode and the URL plus RC4 key that are used to fetch the malicious payload and decrypt it e.g, Locky ransomware.

That’s it for today. In the following post I will cover the malicious Flash file and how to analyze the Shellcode to understand what is done behind the scenes when the exploit is successfully triggered.


Neutrino Exploit Kit Analysis and Threat Indicators

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Malware Analysis – Dridex Loader – Part 2

On our last blog post, we performed malware analysis of Dridex and found out how to decode its strings. This gave us more visibility into its intent and functionality. In this part we will continue the analysis and move into getting the Dridex configuration settings and XML messages that are generated and exchanged with the C&C.

Please note that a bit of familiarity with OllyDbg is needed in order to follow the steps described.

Dridex is known to contain an initial configuration which contains the campaign ID and the addresses of the C&C. In the previous post, one of the strings that we obtained from decoding the chunk at virtual address 0x00411020 was “%d.%d.%d.%d:%d”. This string is interesting because it’s a format string that denotes the format of an IP address and port. Provided with this information we start our analysis and step through the code and try to determine where is used. Essentially, at some point in time, after going back and forth in the debugger, setting breakpoints and restarting the debugging session, we can see that there is a function at virtual address 0x00404408 that is responsible to read a chunk of data stored in virtual address 0x004164e0 (file offset 0x000154E0). Stepping through the execution of this function we can see in the stack our string being used and moments after, the first IP address of the C&C appears in the stack view. Going over this function a couple of times and verifying what it does we can determine that the Botnet ID, number of C&C and the C&C addresses are retrieved from this chunk of data. Below is a print screen that shows the instructions that perform this operation.


After reading the values, the C&C addresses are converted to ASCII and the value is returned by the wvnsprintfA() API using the format  string “%d.%d.%d.%d:%d”. The list of C&C for this sample are:


Now that we know where this information resides, we can also get the C&C addresses outside of the debugger. We know the file offset where the configuration settings are. Then we can use the command line to get the hex values for the botnet ID and IP addresses and convert them using the printf command and the format string “%d.%d.%d.%d:%d”.


After this, the approach is the same. Stepping through the code, setting breakpoints, restarting the debug session and repeating this for several times until we find what we are looking for. In this case we can see that the next string to be used is the following:


This will be the next step performed by the loader. Gathering information to populate this XML message which will then be used to report to the C&C in order to retrieve the C&C nodes and further down the road retrieve the DLL module. Now, how does the loader generate the values that are used to populate this XML message? Let’s go over each one.

The unique=”%s” value is generated by querying different values from the Windows registry and then computing a hash of these values using MD5 as algorithm. In order to query the values from the Registry, Dridex uses the RegOpenKeyExA() and RegQueryValueExA() API’s. By setting a breakpoint in these API’s we can see the different registry keys and subkeys being queried. An example is shown in the following image.


The values obtained are from the subkeys ComputerName, USERNAME and InstallDate. We can obtain the values by setting a breakpoint in the RegQueryValueExA() and then view the contents of the buffer address.
The full registry keys are:


This information is then concatenated and 4 null bytes are appended to it. This is then passed to a hashing routine to compute a MD5 hash. To perform this operation this sample uses CryptAcquireContextW(), CryptCreateHash(), CryptHashData() and CryptGetHashParam() API calls.  How do we know its MD5? We can set a breakpoint in CryptCreateHash() and determine the algorithm used by looking at the stack view and look at the different arguments. Specifically the alg_id has the value 0x00008003. By looking at the MSDN website, we can verify that this number corresponds to MD5. Then by setting a breakpoint on CryptHashData() and stepping into its execution we can see the buffer of data as shown in the below picture.


The generation of the botnet ID value can be replicated by copying the 12 bytes of the buffer and computing the md5 hash with command seen in the below picture.


Then the botnet value is retrieved from the configuration settings hardcoded in the binary, as we saw previously, and has the value 220 (0x00DC). The bit value is the system architecture. Finally, the Soft XML tag is populated by the list of software installed in the machine. This is accomplished by opening the registry key “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall” and querying the values “DisplayName” and “DisplayVersion”. Once again this information can be seen by setting a breakpoint in the RegOpenKeyExA() and RegQueryValueExA() API’s.  After gathering all the information, the loader configuration XML message will look similar to the following:


This message on my system is temporarily saved at virtual address 0x0069B008. Stepping through the code you will see that this message becomes gibberish. Essentially, this XML message is passed to a function that transform this message into gibberish. Dridex is known to use RC4, so it would be a matter of time (.. and some help) in order to understand where this encryption is done and if is RC4.

Going back and forth in the debugger we found a function at virtual address 0x00409504 that performs the encryption. To figure out thefunction where the encryption routine is performed the article “An Introduction to Recognizing and Decoding RC4 Encryption in Malware” was very helpful.

This sample uses a 2048-bits RC4 key to encrypt the data. The key is obtained from the decoded strings. In this sample the RC4 key is: “Yhc3XUIiv2rNzgy968TWCcx6PjBvLnuyT0ofNA9lvif8EIoZrLshPJ2kYi1WFXMDsuihGkT”. In the picture below we can see the data before encrypted at virtual address 0x00698b008.


After encryption, the data is sent over the network using a HTTPS request. In the debugger we can see that the request uses the POST verb by setting a breakpoint on HttpOpenRequestW(). We can also see the body of the request and its size by setting a breakpoint on HttpSendRequestW() and looking at the contents of the virtual address used by the buffer parameter.


In the network we can see the exact same data by doing SSL interception using Burp proxy.


Then, the C&C replies back with RC4 encrypted message which we can observe in the network also using Burp.


Following that, the HTTPS response is processed and the payload is retrieved by InternetReadFile() API and passed to the RC4 decryption routine. Because RC4 is a symmetric algorithm we can use the encryption key to decrypt the payload. If we save the HTTPS response captured by Burp and use the RC4 key to decrypt the body of the HTTP response, we get the following message:


Before we continue is important to refer that this XML message contains the list of C&C nodes which will be used by the bot module (DLL) . To obtain the list of C&C, the data needs to be base64 decoded and then decoded with a 4-bytes XOR key which is stored at byte 128. In our case is 0x162b0e0f. After decoding, the data needs to be decompressed. The below picture illustrates how to obtain the nodes list.


This message named “list” is then saved for persistence by being used to populate a startup config XML message that is retrieved from the encoded strings and has the following format: <cfg net=”%d”><startup>%s</startup><del>%S</del></cfg>

After the XML message has been populated, it gets encoded with a XOR key that is created by computing the MD5 of the values that are retrieved from the below registry keys plus a value of 0x1c that is appended to it.


The encoded data is then saved into the registry into the following registry key:


Where “%s” will be substituted by the XOR key that was generated previously. In our case the encoded data will be saved into the registry entry “HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\CLSID\{6B39CE2E-3F5E-4C33-366C-31C00F47FD68}\ShellFolder”. The operation of saving the encoded data into the Windows Registry can be observed by setting a breakpoint into the RegSetValueExA().


Following that, the Loader creates a Mutex that is generated by computing a MD5 hash of the values retrieved from the same registry keys as the previous step, plus a value of 0x02 that is appended to it.  Then, the last step of the loader is to create a new XML message  that is used to check-in into the C&C and retrieve the DLL module. The XML message has the format: “<loader><get_module unique=”%s” botnet=”%d” system=”%d” name=”%s” bit=”%d”/>” . This message is populated with the values we already seen previously. Then is encrypted and sent over the network in a HTTPS POST request as we can see in Burp.


The C&C replies back with a response.


Noteworthy, that the content length of this message is much bigger than previous messages. The response gets processed as previously and then decrypted. The message decrypted contains the Dridex DLL module saved in base64.


The DLL md5 is ccd94e452b35f8820b88d1e5856e8196 and can be obtained either by decrypting the network traffic using the RC4 key or by dumping the memory contents to a file using OllyDbg. After that the DLL is injected into explorer.exe.  To achieve this Dridex uses a technique known as DLL injection which consists in copying the malicious DLL into the address space of the target process i.e., explorer.exe and then creates a new thread which points to the malicious DLL. This technique is well explained in the Practical Malware Analysis book from Michael Sikorski and Andrew Honig.

Essentially, Dridex will browse the opened processes until it finds the one it wants to inject to. This is done using the API functions CreateToolhelp32Snapshot(), Process32First(), and Process32Next(). Then it opens the desired process with OpenProcess(), allocates memory in the target process with VirtualAllocEx() and it injects the malicious DLL and a piece of shellcode with WriteProcessMemory(). Following that it creates a remote thread using CreateRemoteThread(). The below picture illustrates some of the steps performed during the DLL injection.


The loader process then exits and the DLL module will take over and do its job.

Before we conclude our analysis, there is one thing that is worth to mention. Its how Dridex creates a persistence mechanism to survive reboots. Dridex only creates the persistence mechanism when the operating system is rebooted or shutdown. This is a clever technique and difficult to detect. The DLL is dumped to the disk during the shutdown and a registry key is created under HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run that invokes rundll32.exe to invoke the malicious DLL using an obfusctated export name. This will make sure the DLL is injected into explorer.exe when the operating system starts. Then the registry key is deleted. This key can been seen by starting the operating system in safe mode.


That’s it.  In this series of articles we covered different techniques used by Dridex. Dridex features and functionality go much more beyond the loader and one of its strengths  resides in the different modules and injection capabilities it has. Even in the loader there are features that we didn’t saw because we were running with admin rights in a Windows XP machine. The loader has other capabilities when is running in a more recent operating systems without admin rights such as bypassing UAC. Many of the features and modules are covered in the references articles. Nonetheless, hopefully this gives a good overview about the Dridex loader and its functionality.

These articles were possible due to the help from two good friends (you know who you are) that gave me some hints on some aspects of the analysis.

Loader MD5:c2955759f3edea2111436a12811440e1
DLL MD5:ccd94e452b35f8820b88d1e5856e8196



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Malware Analysis – Dridex Loader – Part I

It has been quite some time since the article “Malware Analysis – Dridex & Process Hollowing” where we went over the analysis of banking trojan known as Dridex and how it leverages a technique known as process hollowing to extract an unpacked version of itself into memory. In that article, we briefly explained this technique and used OllyDbg to illustrate the different steps. Today, we will continue where we left off, extract the unpacked sample from memory and continue the analysis. This unpacked sample is known as the Loader. The Loader is what we will be looking at. We will mainly use a debugger to perform our analysis in order to understand more about what it does and get visibility into its functionality.  Please note that a bit of familiarity with OllyDbg is needed in order to follow the steps described.

You might want to read the last article and read more about the process hollowing technique in order to situate yourself before we start. As a refresher, the last step we did was to use OllyDbg to set a breakpoint on WriteProcessMemory() API and execute the binary. Once the breakpoint was reached we could see the moment before WriteProcessMemory() API was called and the different arguments in the stack.

In OllyDbg in the stack view (bottom right) we could see that one of the arguments is buffer. The data stored in this buffer is of particular interest to us because it contains the contents of the malicious code that is going to be written to the legitimate process i.e., the unpacked sample.

So, to continue our analysis we need to extract the unpacked sample into disk. We can perform this by saving contents of the buffer argument from the WriteProcessMemory() API into a file. In OllyDbg, in the memory view (bottom left) we right click – Backup – Save data to file and save the file with the suggested name _009C0000.mem.


With the binary extracted we can, again. start the initial steps of malware analysis. As normal we perform basic static analysis in 3 steps. The first step is to profile the file. We can easily determine its an PE32 executable file using the Linux “file” command. In addition, we compute the MD5 of the file which is c2955759f3edea2111436a12811440e1. With this fingerprint we can search different online tools such as VirusTotal in order to find further information about it.

Second step is to run the strings command against the binary. The strings command will display printable ASCII and UNICODE strings that are embedded within the file. This can disclose information about the binary functionality.

The third step is to use some tool like the PE Analysis Toolkit from Fernando Mercês or CFF explorer from Daniel Pisteli to analyze the Win32 PE headers. Extracting information from the PE headers can reveal information about API calls that are imported and exported by the program. It can also disclose date and time of the compilation and other embedded data of interest. The binary contains library dependencies and these dependencies can be looked at in order to infer functionality through static analysis. These dependencies are included in the Import Address Table (IAT) section of the PE structure so the Windows loader (ntdll.dll) can know which dll’s and functions are needed for the binary to properly run.

Noteworthy, is that in this binary, the PE headers don’t contain an Import Directory and we are unable to determine its dependencies because the IAT is missing. This makes this binary more stealthier and more complex to analyze. As result we will need to load this sample into OllyDbg and try to find out more information about it while stepping throughout the code. The binary needs to somehow resolve the Imports.

Dridex is known to use different techniques to encode and obfuscate data.  This sample is no different. We open the _009C0000.mem file into OllyDbg and while going back and forth and stepping into the different functions, we can observe that in the beginning of the execution there is a XOR function that is performed. By following the memory addresses that are used across the different function arguments from the different routines, and looking in detail into the memory and stack pane we can see that the names of the different API calls start to appear. There is a function at virtual address 0x00406c0f  that performs XOR of a chunk of data stored at virtual address 0x0040f060. It uses 2 XOR 32-bits keys. In the picture below you can see in the dissasembler window (top left) the instruction that loads the first XOR key into the register EAX. By following the function loop and see the content of the memory addresses we would be able to see that LoadLibraryA() API appears as string.

Because going over the loop in OllyDbg and observe the API calls being resolved is a tedious process we can perform the decoding offline. We know where the chunk of data starts and the XOR keys. So, we can save the chunk of data into a file in order to perform the decoding and get all the data. To do this in OllyDbg, we set a breakpoint in the XOR function at virtual address 0x00406c0f, In the dissasembler window (top left), Ctrl + G and in the expression to follow dialog box enter the function address. Then press F2 to set a breakpoint in that line. Then hit F9 to run the sample. It will pause the execution when the breakpoint is hit. Then press F7 to step into each instruction until you hit the function that loads the first XOR key at address 0x00406c36. Then go into to the Memory dump window (Bottom left corner), hit Ctrl + G and insert the memory address 0x0040f060. Then select the data until you see a series of null bytes. Right click and choose Binary – Binary Copy. Below a print screen of this step.


Then we can paste the data to a text file and use a small python script to perform the XOR decoding using the obtained keys and see that the binary has an extensive list of 355 imported functions.


This was the first XOR operation. Then after decoding the API it needs, the binary decodes the chunk of data stored at 0x00414c20 and gets the names of the libraries like kernel32.dll, ntdll.dll and others.  This operation is performed by a function stored at Virtual Address 0x0040d42f. In the picture below you can see in the dissasembler window (top left) the instruction that loads the first XOR key into the register EAX.


Using the same technique has previously described, we can save this chunk of data into a file and perform the XOR decoding in order to get the list of libraries that are used by the binary.


The strings decoding happens throughout the execution. There are 5 chunks of data that are decoded using XOR and 2 x 32-bits keys. The below table shows the XOR keys and the offset address of the data and functions that are called in order to decode the strings:


By decoding all the chunks we get visibility into the binary functionality and can deduce its malicious intent. For the sake of brevity and because the list of strings is quite extensive, this is left as exercise to the reader. Nonetheless, below is a small portion of the decoded strings. These ones are associated with the UAC bypass technique used by Dridex to get Admin rights.


That’s it for part 1. On part 2 we will look into how the C&C addresses are obtained and some of the techniques used by Dridex to generate the XML messages used by the loader.

Sample MD5: c2955759f3edea2111436a12811440e1












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The ABC’s of a Cyber Intrusion

IntrusionNowadays, in corporations of any size and maturity level, I believe the success of many of the initial compromise and follow up actions is based on three variables. First, a well-crafted phishing email, either with a weaponized document or malicious link. Second the ability of the malicious email/link to circumvent the multitude of expensive filters that are layered throughout the network boundary and reach to the endpoint. Third, a well-intentioned employee making mistakes.  If these three conditions are met then the threat actor is likely to establish a foothold inside the corporate network.  Of course the conditions for the second and third variable to be met are likely outside of the attacker control and depends on many factors that can impact the success of the exercise. For example, two questions that might be relevant to determine how hard would be for a threat actor to get in, are: How well optimized, tuned and monitored is the deployed security technology? How well behaved and trained are the corporate users about the different types of threats?

Nevertheless, a threat actor that has strong technical capabilities can shift tactics and compromise websites that are related to your business and instead focus on a watering hole attack. This might remove the third variable from the equation.

Once the threat actor(s) got in, he will likely perform internal recon to find assets and data of interest. To collect this information he needs a toolbox. More often than the defenders would like the attackers are using Windows native tools to perform their actions. However, many times to be able to access more resources within the environment they deploy their own tools which sometimes are legitimate sysadmin tools – like SysInternals Suite. Normally, these tools are moved into the environment using the same channel that has been used to establish foothold. The toolbox might consist in exploit(s), credential theft tool(s), utilities to (de)compress and encrypt data and other utilities or scripts.

After having their toolbox deployed – normally referred as staging phase – is common that they start enumerating and mapping the environment. The initial collection might consist of information about the users, their roles, the enforced password policies, the workstations and server names. To do this the threat actor only needs to query the Domain. By Domain I mean the Active Directory which is likely present in any corporate network environment. In a very simple manner the Active Directory is a directory that can be easily queried just like someone would query any other directory such as the yellow pages. Just by executing the net.exe command on a command prompt the attacker can dump all the users, service accounts and which users and service accounts belong to which groups. This information is of great value and become very useful when the attacker is moving laterally. In addition, this information can be complemented by gathering which users are logged on a particular system using the query.exe command. Furthermore, the attacker can leverage powerful Windows Management Instrumentation Command Line (wmi.exe) and PowerShell techniques to increase his capabilities to collect even more information about the Domain. This can all be done with a non-privileged account.

Then, provided with all this rich information the threat actor can start expanding his territory and move laterally. How would he do that? Well, in fact you could be thinking about using the latest 0-day or a novel exploit technique but in today’s corporate networks sometimes the attacker doesn’t need this. Why? Well, many times the weakness of corporate networks is processes and people. For example, the persons that have the keys to the domain such as sysadmins are likely to be a target. The sysadmins are persons with a day job, a pile of tasks to perform and many times part of an understaffed team. Moreover, their goal is likely not security but availability of the services, minimum disruption to the business and at the end of the day a job well done that satisfy the business needs.

Consider the scenario that exists in most corporate networks when someone raises a ticket into helpdesk. Or some endpoint maintenance or action needs to be performed by a sysadmin. Many times the administration of the workstations is done by sysadmins that connect to the endpoint and authenticate using domain credentials that have privileged accounts. This will make their credentials exposed because when the user logs on interactively, Windows will cache the user password in memory. Perhaps, here we have a problem with the processes and not with technology. A privileged domain account should never login into a workstation. Other scenario that is problematic is the management of service accounts. Many times privileged service accounts are used for all type of services. This means the credentials of the service accounts are exposed and can be retrieved by an attacker with local access to the system. Therefore, service accounts should be managed prudently and more important a common mistake is to allow service accounts to login interactively. The scope of service accounts should be limited and, perhaps, here we have another process issue, service accounts should never be used to logon interactively. Another common challenge is that internal network segregation is often not the same as the perimeter leaving services and servers exposed to direct access from the workstations. These are some of the common challenges that are difficult problems to solve and where many times convenience wins and technology alone is not likely to overcome.

What is the impact of this? If a threat actor manages to get a foothold inside an environment that relies on practices such as the ones described previously, then he can access a variety of credentials. The captured credentials will depend on the technique and hardening settings of the endpoint used and are either in a form of a hash, ticket or clear text. This can be accomplished using tools such as Windows Credential Editor, Mimikatz, Gsecdump or AceHash. Won’t antivirus detect these tools? Likely, when they are used off the shelf but not when they are customized. Furthermore, more often than we would like, the internal network segregation is simple and not designed to prevent attacks. This means the attacker can enumerate services at will and leverage the gathered credentials to logon into servers. This step is a game changer!

If the attacker has credentials that can be used to login into your Servers and Domain Controllers then is likely game over. For example he could create a persistence and unnoticed backdoor just by setting a registry key that will use the cmd.exe as a Debugger for tools like sethc.exe (Sticky Keys) and osk.exe (On-screen keyboard). Or even worse he could easily steal the Active Directory database (ntds.dit). Even though the database is not accessible via user mode API’s the threat actor can leverage different techniques such as Volume Shadow copy, Powershell offensive framework like PowerSploit or use a forensic tool that is able to read low level NTFS. With a copy of the Active Directory database the threat actor can perform an offline attack using tools like Impacket secredumps to extract all the credentials. If the threat actors have the keys to the kingdom they will likely be undetected for quite some time and might start using the same egress points as your remote access users. How many VPN users do you have that are in the exception list of not having 2nd factor?

From an IT point of view this will mean your network would be in the worst state possible and your most plausible solution, among other things, is to rebuild the workstations, servers and potentially go over the painful task of having to rebuild the entire Active Directory forest. Now, this will be expensive however, it’s not impossible and the organization will survive. But, if the attacker also gets access to the servers that hold the organization critical information, valuable data, and intellectual property that would make the business leaders tremble. The financial direct or indirect losses of a security incident can be significant. The reputational damage can be difficult to assess and the disruption of critical systems on heavy regulated industry can have significant consequences.

Multi-stage, multi-faceted attacks are here to stay. The tools and technique will evolve and become more sophisticated than ever. The threat actors behind the attacks will try to become stealthy and remain under the radar.  However, on the other side of the fence we have the defenders. Which I believe can have a big impact on detecting and preventing the threat actors mission. If the detection only occurs after the fact then they can respond and stop the bleeding and limit the damage. But before they do this the organizations should get the basics right. It can take time and is never too late. A good starting point is to choose a framework such as the SANS TOP 20 Critical Controls. Use it as a reference for building, designing, deploying and adopt security controls and measure the security posture of your organization. Then move on from there to build more advanced capabilities!

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